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Majority of Borneo’s mammals live in the lowlands but some can be found in the lower montane forests. Approximately 90 species of lowland mammals have been recorded, leaf monkey, red leaf monkey, orangutan, Borneo gibbon, linsang, and binturong. Among these categories are numerous bat species, slow loris, tarsier, grey binturong). Other larger mammals recorded include the bearded pigs, sun bears, sambar deer, barking deer and mouse deer. The smaller mammals seen include the tree shrews, squirrels (tree, ground and flying squirrels), pangolins, porcupines while those likely to be spotted at night are the palm civets, Malay weasels, rats and mice, flying foxes and the leopard cats.





Kinabalu is also the home of a few species of mammals classified as insectivores which feed only or predominantly on invertebrates. Sightings of Borneo's largest insectivore the Moonrat has been recorded in the fringes of the Park while the Lesser Gymnure is confined to the areas of the Park above the lowland dipterocarp forests. The Black Shrew and the Kinabalu Shrew are found only on Mt. Kinabalu. The Ferret-badger is found at altitudes between 3600 feet and 13300 feet. It has close relatives in the mountain ranges of mainland Asia and Java. However in Borneo it is confined to Mt. Kinabalu and nearby mountains.


Kinabalu recorded more than 326 species of birds, categorized respectively into 4 groups; sub-alpine species, endemic montane species, non-endemic montane species and lowland species.




Some 22 species of montane birds which include the Red-breasted partridge, Crrimson-headed partridge, Everett’s thrush and Kinabalu serpent eagle. The lowland birds are normally found below 3,300 feet. In sub-alpine forests the little brown Sunda Bush-warbler and the Short-tailed Bush-warbler are often seen skulking about in the undergrowth above 6540 feet. The most common sub-alpine birds are the black and red Mountain Blackbird and the smaller dark olive-green Blackeye.  Higher up above the tree line the Blue and White-browed Shortwing can often be sighted. If you are lucky enough, you might encounter the Kinabalu Friendly Warbler.




There are as many as 200 species of butterflies, mostly occuring below 6350ft in Kinabalu. About 112 small moth species have been identified, these can be found at above 6000ft and are mostly active at night. 


There are lots of amphibian and approximately 61 frog and toad species have been recorded in Kinabalu and many species of fresh water fishes, beetles, snakes and terrestrial mollusks.



Types and severity threats in Kinabalu Park




The unique flora found on the slopes of Mt. Kinabalu is protected to some extent by the steepness of the terrain and poor soil conditions, which discourage logging and farming.


Nevertheless, some of the surrounding slopes outside the park boundary are being cleared for farming. Road construction has enhanced tourist access to Kinabalu Park, which has led to the construction of more facilities. Some of these developments have been poorly planned and even detrimental, such as government development projects such as a golf course and the 1984 redesignation of Trus Madi from a watershed protection forest to that of a commercial forest reserve allowing logging to take place.


Commercial logging may have encroached into the park, and a section of the park was excised in 1974 for the development of a copper mine. A number of species, especially the rare and endemic species in the eco-region, are being over collected for the commercial wildlife and plant trade. These problems are exacerbated by the absence of buffer zones around the park and insufficient staff to enforce regulations.



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